|CRAY INC filed this Form 10-Q on 10/30/2018|
transaction price to each performance obligation using the Company’s estimate of the standalone selling price of each distinct good or service in the contract.
The Company determines the transaction price by reviewing the established contractual terms and other relevant information. Contracts can include penalty clauses and contracts with government customers may not be fully funded, both of which represent variable consideration. Generally, the Company includes both the funded and unfunded portions of a contract with a government customer in the transaction price, as most often it is deemed the contract will become fully funded. The Company also assesses the likelihood of certain penalties that would result in contract price reductions and, if deemed probable, the transaction price is adjusted.
The majority of the Company’s contracts include multiple promised goods and services, which are assessed at contract inception. Each distinct good or service is identified as a performance obligation, which may be an individual good or service or a bundle of goods or services. In order to determine whether the promises are distinct, the Company assesses the use of its products and services by its customers to determine whether the customer can benefit from the good or service on its own or from other readily available resources, and whether the promised transfer of goods or services is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract.
The majority of the Company’s revenues are from product solutions which include supercomputers, storage, and data analytics systems, each of which are usually separate performance obligations. Revenue is recognized when obligations under the terms of a contract with a customer are satisfied. Product revenue is typically recognized upon customer acceptance, or upon installation or delivery if formal acceptance is not required. Service revenue is typically recognized over time and consists mainly of system maintenance, analyst services, and engineering services, each of which are usually separate performance obligations. System maintenance commences upon customer acceptance or installation, depending on the contract terms, and revenue is recognized ratably over the remaining term of the maintenance contract. On-site analysts provide specialized services to customers, the revenue for which is recognized ratably over the contract period. Service revenue is recognized on a straight-line basis over the service period as the services are available continuously to the customer. Revenue from engineering services can be recognized as services are performed or as milestones are achieved, depending on the terms of the contract and nature of services performed. If, in a contract, the customer has an option to acquire additional goods or services, that option gives rise to a performance obligation if the option provides a material right to the customer that it would not receive without entering into that contract. Revenue from purchase options can be recognized as those future goods or services are transferred or when the option expires.
The Company performs an assessment to determine whether a significant financing component is present in a contract. If a contract is determined to include a significant financing component, the interest rate used in the calculation is based on the prevailing interest rates at contract inception and the entity’s creditworthiness. When the period between providing a good or service to the customer is expected to be less than one year from payment, the Company applies the practical expedient and does not adjust the consideration for the effects of a significant financing component.
Occasionally, the Company’s contracts include noncash consideration. This typically consists of returned parts when a system is upgraded or de-installed. Noncash consideration is measured at contract inception at estimated fair value.
The total transaction price is allocated to each performance obligation identified in the contract based on its relative standalone selling price. The Company does not have directly observable standalone selling prices for the majority of its performance obligations due to a relatively small number of customer contracts that differ in system size and contract terms which can be due to infrequently selling each performance obligation separately, not pricing products within a narrow range, or only having a limited sales history, such as in the case of certain advanced and emerging technologies. When a directly observable standalone selling price is not available, the Company estimates the standalone selling price. In determining the estimated standalone selling price, the Company uses the cost to provide the product or service plus a margin, or considers other factors. When using cost plus a margin, the Company considers the total cost of the product or service, including customer-specific and geographic factors as appropriate. The Company also considers the historical margins of the product or service on previous contracts and several other factors including any changes to pricing methodologies, competitiveness of products and services, and cost drivers that would cause future margins to differ from historical margins.
The Company sometimes offers discounts to its customers. As these discounts are offered on bundles of goods and services, the discounts are applied to all performance obligations in the contract on a pro-rata basis.