|CRAY INC filed this Form 10-Q on 10/30/2018|
Our effective tax rate was approximately (1)% for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, compared to 39% and 37% for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, respectively. The difference between the expected statutory tax rate of 21% and the actual tax rate of (1)% for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, was attributable to our decision to continue to provide a full valuation allowance against our U.S. federal deferred tax assets offset, in part, by foreign taxes. The primary reason for the difference between the expected statutory tax rate of 35% and the actual tax rates of 39% and 37% for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, respectively, was our research and development tax credit and other permanent items. One of the permanent items for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 was the $4.4 million gain from the strategic transaction which was not taxable under Federal income tax law.
New Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers: Topic 606 (ASU 2014-09) to supersede nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under GAAP. The core principle of ASU 2014-09 is to recognize revenues when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration that is expected to be received for those goods or services. ASU 2014-09 defines a five step process to achieve this core principle and, in doing so, it is possible more judgment and estimates may be required within the revenue recognition process than required under prior GAAP, including identifying performance obligations in the contract, estimating the amount of variable consideration to include in the transaction price and allocating the transaction price to each separate performance obligation. The new guidance also requires additional disclosures and several terminology changes, such as amounts previously referred to as deferred revenue now being referred to as customer contract liabilities. We adopted ASU 2014-09 at the beginning of the first quarter of 2018 using the modified retrospective method. The comparative information for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, and as of December 31, 2017 has not been restated and continues to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for those periods. The effect of initially applying the new revenue standard had an immaterial effect on our financial statements. Adoption of the new standard did not have a material impact on our net loss during the first nine months of 2018. We expect the impact of the adoption of the new standard to be immaterial to our net income on an ongoing basis.
In January 2016, FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-01, Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities: Topic 825 (ASU 2016-01). The updated guidance enhances the reporting model for financial instruments, which includes amendments to address aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure. We adopted ASU 2016-01 at the beginning of the first quarter of 2018. Adoption of ASU 2016-01 did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02, Leases: Topic 842 (ASU 2016-02), that replaces existing lease guidance. The new standard is intended to provide enhanced transparency and comparability by requiring lessees to record right-of-use assets and corresponding lease liabilities on the balance sheet. Under the new guidance, leases will continue to be classified as either finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Lessor accounting is largely unchanged under ASU 2016-02. Adoption of ASU 2016-02 is required for fiscal reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim reporting periods within those fiscal years with early adoption being permitted. The new standard initially required application with a modified retrospective approach to each prior reporting period presented with various optional practical expedients. In July 2018, this requirement was amended with the issuance of Accounting Standards Update No. 2018-11, Leases: Topic 842: Targeted Improvements (ASU 2018-11), which permits an additional (and optional) transition method to adopt the new leases standard. Under this new transition method, an entity initially applies the new leases standard at the adoption date and recognizes a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption. Consequently, an entity’s reporting for the comparative periods presented in the financial statements in which it adopts the new leases standard will continue to be in accordance with current GAAP (Topic 840, Leases). An entity that elects this additional (and optional) transition method must provide the required Topic 840 disclosures for all periods that continue to be in accordance with Topic 840. The amendments do not change the existing disclosure requirements in Topic 840. While we expect adoption of ASU 2016-02 to lead to a material increase in the assets and liabilities recorded on our Consolidated Balance Sheet, we are still evaluating the overall impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In August 2016, FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments (ASU 2016-15). The updated guidance clarifies how companies present and classify certain cash receipts and cash payments in the statement of cash flows. We adopted ASU 2016-15 at the beginning of the first quarter of 2018. Adoption of ASU 2016-15 did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In November 2016, FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash (ASU 2016-18), which amends ASC 230 to add or clarify guidance on the classification and presentation of restricted cash in the statement of cash flows. The amended guidance requires that amounts that are deemed to be restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents be included in the cash and cash-equivalent balances in the statement of cash flows. A reconciliation between