|CRAY INC filed this Form 10-Q on 10/30/2018|
We estimate that about 60% of these obligations are expected to be recognized as revenue in the next 18 months, with the remainder thereafter.
We record our inventory at the lower of cost or net realizable value, with cost computed on a first-in, first-out basis (FIFO). We regularly evaluate the technological usefulness and anticipated future demand for our inventory components. Due to rapid changes in technology and the increasing demands of our customers, we are continually developing new products. Additionally, during periods of product or inventory component upgrades or transitions, we may acquire significant quantities of inventory to support estimated current and future production and service requirements. As a result, it is possible that older inventory items we have purchased may become obsolete, be sold below cost or be deemed in excess of quantities required for production or service requirements. When we determine it is not likely we will recover the cost of inventory items through future sales, we write-down the related inventory to our estimate of its net realizable value.
Because the products we sell have high average sales prices and because a high number of our prospective customers receive funding from U.S. or foreign governments, it is difficult to estimate future sales of our products and the timing of such sales. It also is difficult to determine whether the cost of our inventories will ultimately be recovered through future sales. While we believe our inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value and that our estimates and assumptions to determine any adjustments to the cost of our inventories are reasonable, our estimates may prove to be inaccurate. We have sold inventory previously reduced in part or in whole to zero, and we may have future sales of previously written-down inventory. We also may incur additional expenses to write-down inventory to its estimated net realizable value. Adjustments to these estimates in the future may materially impact our operating results.
Accounting for Income Taxes
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards and are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences and carryforwards are expected to be recovered or settled.
A valuation allowance for deferred tax assets is provided when we estimate that it is more likely than not that all or a portion of the deferred tax assets will not be realized through future operations. This assessment is based upon consideration of all available positive and negative evidence, which includes, among other things, our recent results of operations, forecasted domestic and international earnings over a number of years, all known business risks and industry trends, and applicable tax planning strategies that should, if implemented, enable us to utilize our deferred tax assets before they expire. We consider our actual historical results over several years to have stronger weight than other more subjective indicators, including forecasts, when considering whether to establish or reduce a valuation allowance on deferred tax assets. We have significant difficulty projecting future results due to the nature of the business and the industry in which we operate.
As of September 30, 2018, we continued to provide a full valuation allowance against our U.S. federal deferred tax assets and against the majority of our state and foreign deferred tax assets as the realization of such assets is not considered to be more likely than not at this time. In a future period our assessment of the realizability of our deferred tax assets and therefore the appropriateness of the valuation allowance could change based on an assessment of all available evidence, both positive and negative in that future period. If our conclusion about the realizability of our deferred tax assets and therefore the appropriateness of the valuation allowance changes in a future period we could record a substantial tax benefit in our Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations when that occurs. We recognize the income tax benefit from a tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the applicable taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of our position. The tax benefit recognized in the financial statements from such a position is measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement.
As of September 30, 2018, we had approximately $96.7 million of net deferred tax assets before application of a valuation allowance. As of September 30, 2018, net deferred tax assets after reduction by the valuation allowance of $95.6 million were $1.1 million.
Estimated interest and penalties are recorded as a component of interest expense and other expense, respectively.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses include costs incurred in the development and production of our hardware and software, costs incurred to enhance and support existing product features, costs incurred to support and improve our development processes, and costs related to future product development. Research and development costs are expensed as incurred, and may be offset by co-funding from third parties. We may also enter into arrangements whereby we make advance, non-refundable payments to a